Friday, November 29, 2013

Teachers, it's time to change! (Synthesis)


Previous blogs have discussed a variety of topics relating to SEBD pupils within the Education System (ES); each blog presented many different arguments and areas which require further research, however upon reflection it is evident that each blog concluded in similar findings. It has been highlighted that the ES as a whole lacks understanding of SEBD, which results in questionable reliability of interventions provided through the ES, and teachers unable to identify SEBD pupils. This blog will explore all key findings from previous resources which concluded the thesis, that the education system is causing further psychological distress through negligence and ignorance of understanding SEBD pupils.Teachers struggle to identify and work with SEBD in the classroom (Young Minds, 2013); they often view pupils with SEBD to be the most challenging and often believe these pupils are unsuitable for inclusion in mainstream education (Avramidis and Norwich 2002). The implications of the negligence, and lack of ability to workhowever the information available from a variety of relating subjects supports the lack of understanding the ES have towards SEBD provides a strong evidence based background for the thesis. The limited availability suggests two possibilities; these being, either that the ES do not believe that SEBD need intervention or additional support, or, that interventionboth of these are clearly uneducated decisions, as this blog will demonstrate.

School Counselling is one of the eldest and most commonly known forms of ES SEBD intervention strategy. Alongside this, Nurture Groups (NG) are currently a growing intervention system within the UK's ES, however 'obvious' flaws have not been explored or researched. Despite countless number of ES resources claiming its effectiveness, previous scientific and psychological research in related fields may suggest otherwise. Related emotional aid interventions provided for SEBD pupils within education, such as SC, produces a cause for concern when predicting the effectiveness of NG in the future. NG is currently not commonly known or fully understood within the general public, however as the NG continue to expand its aims and purpose will be fully exposed and understood by all parents and pupils; this could develop into a stigma resulting in bullying, embracement, and shame for the NG pupils, which in turn may conclude in worse psychological effects than not engaging in NG at all. This hypothesis is made when comparing NG to SC; both NGhowever SC has been practiced since the 1960's (Cooper, 2013) and its reliability, unlike NG, has been widely studied. Cooper (2013) states that SC significantly reduces psychological distress; Rupani, Cooper, McArthur, Pybis, Cromarty,Hill,Gruman, Marston,and, Jackson, Pybis, Cooper, Hill, Cromarty, & Rogers (2013), are all recent studies which support that SC is effective. However, other studies such as Conrad, Dietrich, Heider, Blume, Angermeyer, & Riedel-Heller (2009), and Fox & Butler (2007) address that counselling cause further psychological problem such as bullying, isolation,or even worse not knowing if the negligence and ignorance of their knowledge is contributing towards the sharp rise in mental health (AnxietyBC, 2013).

Teachers' inability to identify SEBD pupils cannot conclude in positive results. Research suggests that without identifying and treating SEBD, the problems rarely disappear (Ulifeline, 2013). Furthermore many researchers suggest that mental health problems that are untreated can cause further more serious mental health implications in the future (Kessler, Berglund, Bruce, Koch, Laska, Leaf,& Bonari, Pinto, Ahn, Einarson, Steiner,& Koren, 2004). Countless research support the relationship between social difficulties in school & younger years of life, and psychosis in later life (CampbellKelleher, Harley, Lynch, Arseneault, Fitzpatrick,Sheylin, Dorhay,simple daily occurrences such as discipline could have catastrophic outcomes on SEBD pupils as their only way of communicating and expressing their difficulty often is through misbehaviour, and the miss-identification, and inappropriate responses by the teacher could contribute towards the pupil experiencing further SEBD.

This ultimately means that SEBD pupils are often not being identified, and if they have been identified the possible outcomes are; a) referral to interventions and services which have questionable effectiveness and/or reliability, b) nothing will be done as the ES has not invested money into interventions or services to support SEBD pupils. The exploration of research concludes that either of these options cannot be of benefit to the pupils, and that the ES has not effectively acknowledged or explored these.

This synthesis blog highlights the lack of understanding and identification teachers have relating to SEBD pupils, and the psychological implications which are a result of this. There is limited or poor evidence which support that teachers are able to effectively identify SEBD pupils, or have any in-depth knowledge, and as a result of this they are unable to provide the pupil with the necessary intervention or treatment, and furthermore the result of the negligence and ignorance is hypothesised to cause further negative psychological distress, and poor academic achievement. This blog ultimately proposes the need for research into the effectiveness of the ES SEBD support system, and whether or not the ES causes further psychological distress through their negligence and ignorance of understanding SEBD pupils.


Avramidis, E., and B. Norwich. 2002. "Teachers' Attitudes Towards Integration/Inclusion: A Review of the Literature." Journal of Special Needs Education 17: 129-147. [Taylor & Francis Online], [CSA]


Bonari, L., Pinto, N., Ahn, E., Einarson, A., Steiner, M., & Koren, G. (2004). Perinatal risks of untreated depression during pregnancy. Can J Psychiatry, 49(11), 726-735.

Campbell, M. L., & Morrison, A. P. (2007). The relationship between bullying, psychotic-like experiences and appraisals in 14-16-year olds. Behaviour research and therapy, 45(7), 1579-1591.


Conrad, I., Dietrich, S., Heider, D., Blume, A., Angermeyer, M. C., & Riedel-Heller, S. (2009). "Crazy? So what!":: A school programme to promote mental health and reduce stigma-results of a pilot study. Health Education, 109(4)

Fox, C. L., & Butler, I. (2007). 'If you don't want to tell anyone else you can tell her': young people's views on school counselling. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 35(1)

Gruman, D. H., Marston, T., & Koon, H. (2013). Bringing Mental Health Needs into Focus Through School Counseling Program Transformation. Professional School Counseling, 16(5).

Jackson, C., Pybis, J., Cooper, M., Hill, A., Cromarty, K., & Rogers, J. (2013). Users of secondary school-based counselling services and specialist CAMHS in Wales: A comparison study. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, (ahead-of-print).

Kelleher, I., Harley, M., Lynch, F., Arseneault, L., Fitzpatrick, C., & Cannon, M. (2008). Associations between childhood trauma, bullying and psychotic symptoms among a school-based adolescent sample. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 193(5), 378-382.

Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P. A., Bruce, M. L., Koch, J. R., Laska, E. M., Leaf, P. J.,& Wang, P. S. (2001). The prevalence and correlates of untreated serious mental illness. Health services research, 36(6 Pt 1), 987.

Rupani, P., Cooper, M., McArthur, K., Pybis, J., Cromarty, K., Hill, A.,& Turner, N. (2013). The goals of young people in school-based counselling and their achievement of these goals. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, (ahead-of-print).

Shevlin, M., Dorahy, M., & Adamson, G. (2007). Trauma and psychosis: an analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(1), 166-169.

Young Minds, (2013). Psychological Perspectives on Behaviour. Retrieved from :
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